What are stablecoins?

Stablecoins are a type of cryptocurrency that is tied to the value of traditional valuable assets. It can be fiat money, precious metals, or even energy. The basis for stablecoins is the blockchain, on the basis of which the coins operate.

The main task of stablecoin developers is to create a cryptocurrency that is immune to volatility and inflation, convenient for exchange for other assets, for buying goods, investing or storing capital. Stablecoins are pegged to an asset 1:1. Deviations are possible up or down, but they are insignificant.

Who needs stablecoins and why?

The relatively stable exchange rate of the US dollar against the…


In the early years of the Bitcoin network, cryptocurrency was considered completely anonymous. However, over time, technicians have learned to track and deanonymize Bitcoin transactions. Then the developers of some new cryptocurrencies decided to add the ability to send truly anonymous transactions to their currencies.

Today there are 3 popular anonymous cryptocurrencies. These are Dash, ZCash and Monero. Let us compare the privacy mechanisms used in these currencies.

Dash. CoinJoin method

There are two types of transactions in Dash cryptocurrency: regular and transactions with increased privacy, using the optional “PrivateSend” function. The PrivateSend function is based on the CoinJoin method. …


Since XMR is a completely anonymous cryptocurrency, information in transactions is also encrypted and inaccessible to everyone. In order to prove the sending of funds, the transaction can be decrypted. In this article, we will consider how to confirm sending to a specific address and see the amount that was sent to this address.

To decrypt the transaction you will need:

  1. Tx hash of transaction (transaction number).
  2. The address to which the transaction was sent.
  3. Tx private key (private key of this transaction).

Private key is available only to the sender. If your wallet does not have the function of…


Exchanges and exchangers require a different number of confirmations when accepting deposits. Users often ask the question “Why so many?” This is due to two reasons: security or the desire of the exchange to retain users’ funds.

Safety of exchanges and services

There is a problem that multiple transaction confirmations help to combat: block splitting, which can lead to double spending.

Branching of blocks — there is a possibility that several new parallel blocks can be formed simultaneously from one block. At this point, the transaction chain splits. When the complexity and length of chains are equal, preference is given to the one whose final…


What is the Replace by fee?

A situation arises when you want to cancel or replace a transaction. This may be due to the fact that transactions do not enter the block for a long time. All operations that were not added to the block after launch are considered unconfirmed. Unconfirmed transactions most often happen precisely because of the low fees. Such transactions still have the ability to become processed.

In the blockchains Bitcoin, Ethereum and others, there is a mechanism that allows you to replace an unconfirmed transaction with another transaction with a higher commission (transaction fee). This mechanism is called Replace by Fee.

Accelerating transactions by increasing fees

The…


What is the Replace by fee?

A situation arises when you want to cancel or replace a transaction. This may be due to the fact that transactions do not enter the block for a long time. All operations that were not added to the block after launch are considered unconfirmed. Unconfirmed transactions most often happen precisely because of the low fees. Such transactions still have the ability to become processed.

In the blockchains Bitcoin, Ethereum and others, there is a mechanism that allows you to replace an unconfirmed transaction with another transaction with a higher commission (transaction fee). This mechanism is called Replace by Fee.

Accelerating transactions by increasing fees

The…


When working with cryptocurrency, each user sooner or later comes across the concept of “consolidation”. This can happen in a situation when a lot of transactions have been received on your Bitcoin wallet, and when sending funds, the fee becomes significantly higher than average. Or you may have noticed that the exchangers take into account the consolidation fee when calculating the final rate. So what is consolidation?

Consolidation. The concepts of “entrance” and “exit” of a transaction

First, you need to figure out what the entrance and output of a transaction is. Let’s look at an example.

Alice sent 0.5 BTC to Bob. …


There are 3 types of addresses:

  1. P2PKH or Legacy address (old address format) is the first version of a Bitcoin address that starts with the number “1” and has 26 to 36 characters. The average fee when sending from a P2PKH address is usually higher than when sending from a Segwit address, because transactions with outdated addresses are larger in size.
    Example: 1A1zP1eP5QGefi2DMPTfTL5SLmv7DivfNa
  2. P2SH is the new address type is structured similarly to P2PKH, but starts with “3” instead of “1”. P2SH provides more complex functionality than the previous type of address. In order to spend bitcoins sent via P2SH…

On November 15, a hard fork took place on the Bitcoin Cash network, dividing it into two chains BCHN and BCHABC. The update took place at block 661 647.

Reasons for a hard fork

The Bitcoin Cash network has undergone periodic updates in the past. The next one was to take place on November 15th. But updating the network is only possible with a general consensus. Unfortunately, a split in the Bitcoin Cash community has been brewing for a long time, and this time it has not been avoided.

Two developer companies, Bitcoin ABC and nChain, could not agree on the key directions for…


In the Ethereum blockchain, you cannot send tokens without having Ethereum on the wallet

This is because you have to pay a commission for each transaction. The unit of payment is ETH. Execution of transactions requires certain computational resources, which are measured in GAS. Each transaction, depending on its complexity, consumes a different amount of GAS. The final commission depends on how much GAS the transaction spent multiplied by the price you charged when you sent the transaction.

An analogy can be made that GAS is fuel and operation is a car. You need a small amount of fuel to travel to the store. But for a trip to a neighboring city, much more…

Mr Robot

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